Reports on Smart Meter Problems

Updated July 23 2019

The 50-page paper “Overview: Fire and Electrical Hazards from ‘Smart’, Wireless, PLC, and Digital Utility Meters” is now available free for downloading and printing. It provides information from experts on utility meters used in the U.S. and Canada.

The report “Analysis: Smart Meter and Smart Grid Problems – Legislative Proposal” is available free to the public for downloading and printing. This 173-page report, released in 2012 by health and environmental advocate Nina Beety, has extensive referenced information on the many problems and risks of the Smart Meter program known at that time, with information from state, national, and international resources.

Investigation and admissions by the industry since 2012 continue to substantiate these serious problems, providing a searing indictment on regulatory and legislative officials who have failed to halt Smart Meter deployments.

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December 8, OneWeb launched 40 satellites; over 7,000 operating satellites now orbit Earth

From Cellular Phone Task Force

Ecocide from Space

December 14, 2022
By Arthur Firstenberg


On the evening of Thursday, December 8, 2022, OneWeb launched 40 satellites from Cape Canaveral, Florida, bringing the total number of active satellites in orbit around the Earth to more than 7,000. These cell towers in space are altering the electromagnetic environment of the entire planet and are debilitating and exterminating all life on it.

Even the first fleet of 28 military satellites launched by the United States caused a worldwide pandemic of influenza when they became operational on June 13, 1968. The Hong Kong flu began in June 1968, lasted through April 1970, and killed up to four million people worldwide. To understand why requires a proper understanding of our connection to the universe and what it is that really gives us life and health, and makes our bodies move. In a sense, we are all puppets on invisible strings that connect us to heaven and earth, strings that resonate at the age-old frequencies of the biosphere in which we live, the space between Earth and Sky, whose dimensions never change. And when we modulate and pulsate those strings at random from thousands of locations in space, we change the beautiful music of the earthly orchestra into a discordant chaos that scatters bodies all over the world, helpless before it.

On March 24-25, 2021, the chaos was brought to a new level, that the world now accepts as normal. In that 24-hour period, a record 96 satellites were launched into space on a single day—60 by SpaceX and 36 by OneWeb—and on the same day SpaceX dramatically increased the speed of its satellite internet connections. On that day, people all over the world suddenly could not sleep, were weak and exhausted, had muscle spasms, and hurt and itched all over, especially in their feet and legs. They had skin rashes, were dizzy and nauseous, and had stomach aches and diarrhea. The ringing in their ears was suddenly amplified. Their eyes were inflamed, and their vision suddenly worsened. They had heart arrhythmias, and their blood pressure went out of control. Some had nosebleeds, or coughed up blood. They were anxious, depressed or suicidal, and irritable. Their cats, dogs, chickens, goats and cows were sick at the same time.

My newsletter of April 15, 2021, Survey Results, quoted from some of the thousand letters I received from people young and old, from people who called themselves electrosensitive and from people who did not, from people who had no wireless technology and from people who had smart meters and 5G antennas outside their homes and who emailed me from their cell phones, all reporting the same experiences, commonly reporting that not only they, but their spouse, children, parents, neighbors, friends, coworkers, clients, and everyone else they knew were sick, exhausted and irritable on March 24 or 25 and had trouble sleeping. The reports came from 42 states and 50 countries.

Deaths of blue titmice spiked in Germany beginning on March 25, 2021. March 25 registered the second highest number of COVID-19 deaths in 2021, and the fifth highest since the pandemic began. The number of mass shootings in the US rose suddenly on March 25 and remained high for three weeks. An average of 6 shootings involving 4 or more victims occurred every day between March 25 and April 13. Photographs of hundreds of worms, and of hundreds of sheep, moving silently in perfect spirals, were taken on March 25 and March 26.

Long-term pain, sickness, and debility has become so common that it is now accepted as a normal part of life that the world thinks it can address with endless vaccinations, mask-wearing, and the wiping of all hands and surfaces with toxic disinfectants.

Last week, on December 8, 2022, on the day OneWeb launched satellites that will expand its coverage across the US, Europe, the Middle East and Asia, I experienced within my body, and heard from some other people both locally and far away that the pains and debilities from which we have been suffering at some level for the past 20 months suddenly intensified. I was almost crippled for three days. As on March 24-25, 2021, I would like to find out how widespread this is. Please reply to this email if you have experienced something similar.

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NASA, France, and SpaceX launch SWOT to shoot radar pulses at Earth’s oceans, lakes, and rivers

  1. When and where were the public hearings?
  2. Where were the public notices for this worldwide project?
  3. Where is the environmental review?
  4. Did they evaluate the costs?
  5. Who approved this?
  6. Did they ask you or me?

In this image made from video provided by NASA, a SpaceX rocket carrying the Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite lifts off from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California, Friday, Dec. 16, 2022. Credit: NASA via AP

Posted at

Satellite launched to map the world’s oceans, lakes, rivers
by Marcia Dunn

December 16, 2022

…Nicknamed SWOT—short for Surface Water and Ocean Topography…About the size of a SUV, the satellite will measure the height of water on more than 90% of Earth’s surface, allowing scientists to track the flow and identify potential high-risk areas. It will also survey millions of lakes as well as 1.3 million miles (2.1 million kilometers) of rivers.

The satellite will shoot radar pulses at Earth, with the signals bouncing back to be received by a pair of antennas, one on each end of a 33-foot (10-meter) boom.

It should be able to make out currents and eddies less than 13 miles (21 kilometers) across, as well as areas of the ocean where water of varying temperatures merge.

NASA’s current fleet of nearly 30 Earth-observing satellites cannot make out such slight features. And while these older satellites can map the extent of lakes and rivers, their measurements are not as detailed, said the University of North Carolina’s Tamlin Pavelsky, who is part of the mission.

Perhaps most importantly, the satellite will reveal the location and speed of rising sea levels and the shift of coastlines, key to saving lives and property. It will cover the globe between the Arctic and Antarctica at least once every three weeks, as it orbits more than 550 miles (890 kilometers) high. The mission is expected to last three years.

Laurie Leshin, the director of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, noted that while the agency is known for its Mars rovers and space telescopes, “this is the planet we care most about.”

Complete article at

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Interview with Dominion Energy Virginia customers, forced to choose between Smart Meters or being disconnected in the winter (VIDEO) – Take Action!

From Children’s Health Defense
December 14, 2022
By Suzanne Burdick, Ph.D.

Despite freezing temperatures and with little to no warning, Dominion Energy Virginia showed up at the homes of more than half a dozen families in Virginia and shut off their power because they refused to have “smart” meters installed in their homes.

More than half a dozen families in Virginia — many with children and elderly family members — have been without power since Nov. 9. Despite the freezing temperatures and with little to no warning, Dominion Energy Virginia showed up at their homes with police and shut off their power because they refused to have “smart” meters installed in their homes.

Watch The People’s Testaments with CHD.TV host Stephanie Locricchio as she deep dives into the challenges Virginia residents face with smart meters.

Children’s Health Defense today launched a targeted action campaign to urge Virginian legislators and Virginia Gov. Glenn Youngkin to enact legislation that protects consumer choice and consent and recognizes the host of health issues that can result from radiofrequency (RF) radiation.

Virginia is one of two states that do not allow residents to opt out of smart meter installation.

On the Dec. 6 episode of The People’s Testaments, Locricchio interviewed three Virginians:

• Aeron Mack, who has multiple health conditions that became worse from RF radiation, explained that after Dominion Energy “upgraded” her house with a smart meter — without her knowledge or consent — she had it replaced with an analog by a trained professional. As a result, Dominion Energy cut off her power.

“I had just gotten home and was recovering from minor cancer surgery when Dominion showed up to cut off my power,” Mack said. “I called the police to help me and instead of checking on my welfare, they stood laughing with the Dominion technicians while I cried and was forced to choose between a smart meter and no power.”

• Milton Williams, a former subcontractor with Dominion Energy, was fired for speaking out against smart meters once he learned how dangerous they can be.

Williams now runs an organization called L.O.S.E. (Life Over Smart Energy), which “raises awareness and empowers people to take back their health, safety and privacy from the smart grid industry.” He asked Virginia citizens to forgive him for installing thousands of smart meters and said he now regrets it.

• Jenny DeMarco is the communications director for Virginians for Safe Technology, a grassroots organization formed “to educate, inform, and advocate for Virginians on the 5G+ rollout and regulating the technologies we’re all using and exposed to every day.”

DeMarco discussed why smart meters do not benefit consumers and are dangerous for privacy and health. She also explained how to know if there is a smart meter on your residence and stressed the importance of knowing if your state has an opt-out option.

Watch The People’s Testaments episode here:

Take action to help the people in Virginia.

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Take Action: Dominion Energy forces Virginia families to choose between Smart Meters or no power at all

From Children’s Health Defense

“Dominion ‘upgraded’ my new house to a ‘smart’ meter without my knowledge or consent. I have Lyme disease and cannot function with a smart meter on my home, but Dominion wouldn’t remove it so I had it replaced with an analog by a trained professional. I had just gotten home and was recovering from minor cancer surgery when Dominion showed up to cut off my power. I called the police to help me and instead of checking on my welfare, they stood laughing with the Dominion technicians while I cried and was forced to choose between a smart meter and no power.”

– Aeron Mack, Fauquier County resident

Almost half a dozen families in Virginia — many with children and elderly family members — had their power cut off in November. Three of those households are still without power. Despite freezing temperatures and with little to no warning, Dominion Energy Virginia (Dominion) showed up at their homes — at times accompanied by police — and shut off their power, because they refused to accept smart meter installations on their properties against their will. Virginia needs you to take action now!

Send letter via

According to a November press release, “Many of these individuals had a smart meter installed without notice or informed consent. Most appealed to Dominion Energy to have it removed and their analog meter put back. When denied by Dominion, they contracted privately to swap out the AMI ‘smart’ meter back to an analog.”

Then their homes went dark.

The Virginia State Corporation Commission (SCC) approved the statewide deployment of smart meters in January of this year as part of the SCC Grid Transformation Plan, even though this plan had previously been denied for statewide installations. Since then, Dominion Energy has been installing smart meters without the knowledge or consent of some customers.

The alternative offered by Dominion — what they claim is a non-communicating meter — poses many of the same concerns as their smart meter option, and is therefore not a viable alternative.

Smart meters are wireless devices that use radiofrequency (RF) radiation to transmit consumption information, such as water, gas and electricity usage to utility companies. RF radiation exposure is linked to many adverse health effects such as tinnitus, fatigue, headaches, dizziness and disorientation, nausea, vomiting and more. Smart meters can transmit up to 190,000 signals per day — more frequently than cell phones, thereby increasing the potential for adverse health effects.

Children, due to their developing physiologies, are especially vulnerable to RF radiation exposure and absorb more radiation than adults. Health effects in children include neurological, behavioral and cognitive issues. In addition to myriad adverse health effects, smart meters are not equipped with surge/lightning arrestors or circuit breaker protection and are a fire hazard.

Consumers should always have a choice when it comes to smart meters.

Take action by sending messages to Governor Youngkin and the Virginia state legislators.

  1. Demand power be restored to the homes of the families who are in the dark.
  2. Explain the host of health issues that can result from RF exposure, including Electromagnetic Sensitivity (EMS), a federally recognized disability.
  3. Insist on legislation that protects consumer choice and consent.

Help our fellow Virginians left in the cold and ensure your power isn’t cut off next by filling out the form at this link

If the form does not appear, use this page.

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2018 Camp Fire revelations: ABC 10 wins lawsuit, obtains and releases detailed grand jury records on PG&E criminal conduct (VIDEO)

From ABC10 Sacramento in their ongoing investigative series on PG&E, the CPUC, Governor Newsom and California officials — Fire – Power – Money

September 28, 2022

Secrets of the Camp Fire: Revealed | Fire – Power – Money

After fighting for the public’s right to know, ABC10 is releasing thousands of pages of grand jury records, detailing PG&E’s crimes in the 2018 Camp Fire.

Author: Brandon Rittiman

SACRAMENTO, Calif. — Criminal homicide cases can bring out extraordinary but necessary pain as details of deadly crimes are laid bare in court for victims and the public to hear.

In the case of America’s deadliest homicide committed by a corporation, the victims’ families have had to deal with the opposite.

“The guilty party should never be able to hide their crimes,” said Steve Bradley, whose 96-year-old grandmother Colleen Riggs was one of PG&E’s 84 manslaughter victims.

At the same time it pleaded guilty in 2020 to killing 84 people in the 2018 Camp Fire, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company paid for a lawsuit sealing the most detailed record of its crimes: the transcript of a secret yearlong grand jury investigation into PG&E’s culpability.

After arguing to the court for transparency of these records, ABC10 has finally obtained them.

We’re making all 5,300 pages available to survivors and the public with this story.

For article and video:

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Maine coalition appeals to state court

Maine Coalition to Stop Smart Meters
P.O. Box 43
Richmond, ME 04357

For Immediate Release – 1/14/22
Contact: Scott Sells 207-749-3371

PUC Spurns Green Meter Solution:  Coalition Appeals to Law Court

In their brief December 21 “deliberation” on the fate of electromechanical or analog opt-out electric  meters, three Maine Public Utilities Commissioners were unanimous in their rejection of a previously  well-reasoned 2011 Commission Order establishing analogs as one of two opt-out choices for citizens  concerned over the many problems inherent with smart meters. The other original opt-out choice was a  digital smart meter without a radio transceiver. On January 13th the Maine Coalition to Stop Smart  Meters appealed the PUC decision to the Maine Supreme Judicial or Law Court.

Concerns with digital smart meters include cyber security issues, constitutional privacy and takings  arguments, adverse health effects from the radiofrequency radiation (RFR) that smart meters emit when  transmitting, RFR-conducted emissions along building wiring (due to the meter converting alternating  current to direct current), susceptibility to power quality issues including harmonics and voltage  transients, and propensity to start fires.

In the current docket, 2019-00044, CMP claimed they needed to replace analog meters with new digital  meters because they had run out of analogs. CMP, with approximately 650,000 analog meters when  they switched to smart meters, was required in the original Opt Out Order from docket 2010-345, to  retain enough electromechanical meters for any opt-out customer who might want one.

Opt Out Order Part II, V. B states in part:

We disagree with CMP’s argument that a smart meter opt-out program should not include an option for an electro-mechanical meter. In our view, providing two opt-out options will not be overly confusing to customers and, based on the smart meter complaints and customer letters, the vast majority of customers that have concerns regarding smart meters desire to maintain an existing meter. It would be of little purpose to provide an opt-out alternative in response to customer concerns when that alternative is not acceptable to most of the customers as a means to address those concerns. 11

We expect CMP to take reasonable actions to maintain the equipment and resources necessary to support both opt-out options

“The PUC has rewarded CMP for their bad behavior and blatant disregard of the original order” said  Ed Friedman, spokesperson for the Coalition. “Somehow, presumably through scrapping or sales, CMP  has disappeared about 644,500 meters (650,000 pre smart meter analogs minus those retained by the original 9,000 opt out customers reduced to 5,500 through attrition from cost and harassment) and the  Commissioners have, not unexpectedly, let them off the hook. Both the PUC and CMP must be held  accountable” he said. “There’s no reason why, if for whatever reason CMP is out of electromechanical  meter stock, the company can’t purchase a couple hundred refurbished meters at $20 each and start an  active and rolling refurbishment program, sending their own older ones in to get recertified at $10 each,  a low cost, effective, safe and green solution that plenty of other utilities take advantage of. The entire  supposed premise for the smart meter program was energy savings and yet here the PUC is rejecting  clean, green solutions that reduce, reuse and recycle in favor of short-lived, toxic, expensive alternative  new digital meters.”

In converting alternating current (AC) from the grid to direct current (DC) needed to run solid state  smart meters, power quality is impacted. “Back in 2011, CMP attempted to convince the Commission  that solid-state digital meters would be an acceptable opt-out alternative to analog meters” said Julie  Tupper, one of the original opt-out complainants to the PUC. “We presented evidence from engineers  and other experts that digital solid-state meters were not an acceptable alternative to analogs for several  reasons, including the emission of transients onto the home wiring. Voltage transients, just one type of  power quality disturbance, sometimes referred to as “dirty electricity or dirty power,” are spikes of  electromagnetic interference (EMI) that travel along the wiring in the walls and have been implicated in  cancer cases worldwide.” (See Woodward & Harding oscilloscope comparisons below)

These conducted and subsequently radiated emissions turning home wiring into a broadcasting antenna may be one reason why smart meters have had such devastating effects (see Tables 1 & 2 in Lamech,  2014, attached). As a physician who has done research on people harmed by wireless radiation, Dr.  Beatrice Golomb, MD PhD Professor of Medicine at UC San Diego said her labs findings that  radiofrequency (RF)-emitting utility meters are the largest cause of new onset non-ionizing radiation  sensitivity, conforms with findings of others (see Golomb, 2020 below).

“Our survey study shows this smart meter – induced electrical sensitivity often led to catastrophic  impacts in the lives of those affected”, Golumb said. “As an instance, 50% of those who were  employed at the time they developed the sensitivity reportedly lost or were forced to leave their job as a  result of it.” She requested that the PUC “please ensure purely analog electromechanical meters remain  available for those who wish them,” citing this is important for the health of vulnerable members of the  public.

Other issues with digital meters include their ability to gather and store more customer data than are  needed for billing, and the customer’s inability to easily discern whether CMP has added RFR or other  modules or otherwise changed the meters over time.

“CMP has shown over and over they cannot be trusted,” said Dianne Wilkins, another initial complainant negotiating the original opt-out order. Wilkins and her husband had concerns focused on  privacy aspects of smart meters. “Maine citizens spent their personal savings against a foreign  corporation with limitless financial resources for 3 years to reach an opt-out agreement with the  PUC/CMP. Reneging on their agreement with the public is a complete agency/utility breach of public  trust, and a disrespecting slap in the face to Maine people. The request to substitute solid state meters  for electromechanical/analog meters should have been denied and the prior agreement with the public,  ordered by the PUC commissioners, allowing opt out options (Docket 2010-345 et al), respected and  honored,” she said.

On August 13, 2021, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit in EHT et al, vs FCC ruled that the  Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ignored scientific evidence and failed to provide a  reasoned explanation for its determination that its 1996 RFR exposure regulations adequately protect  the public against all the harmful effects of wireless radiation. The ruling stated that the FCC’s  “arbitrary and capricious” decision to maintain their 25-year-old exposure limits did not address  evidence indicating “non-cancer” harm, such as impacts to children, testimony of persons injured by wireless radiation, impacts to the developing brain, impacts to the reproductive system, and impacts to  wildlife and the environment.

Portland attorney for the Coalition, Scott Sells, who drafted and filed Wednesdays appeal, cited the  ongoing federal litigation as primary basis for the group’s decision to move ahead. “The PUC has based  their decision in this and past related dockets on the primacy of FCC radiofrequency radiation exposure  standards when it comes to safety. The recent Appeals Court decision however, which the PUC should  have considered, invalidates those standards when it comes to non-cancer effects, children and the  environment. Until and unless the FCC can satisfactorily justify their continued reliance on obsolete  1996 standards, we have asked the Law Court to stay enactment of the recent PUC order allowing  analog meter replacement.”

In their Motion for Reconsideration of the PUC decision in docket 2019-00044, Coalition members  pointed out errors of law, errors of fact, and arbitrary and capricious behavior by the Commission resulting in abuse of discretion. This appeal resulted because the Commission’s reply was inadequate  and did not resolve the errors.

CMP recently was ranked dead last for the 4th consecutive year on JD Power’s customer service survey  of similar size utilities. The company is defendant in a number of state and federal lawsuits, including  those based on nuisance, disability/discrimination, and racketeering grounds.

Woodward & Harding, 2016-Power Quality Comparison: Smart Meter (top) v Analog (bottom)
Golomb, 2020, EMF Medical Conference 2021
# #.

Posted byEnvironmental Health Trust

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5G Cell Towers Cause Massive Insect Decline on the Greek island of Samos

From Safe Tech International

March 3, 3022

Without insects, there will be no life on earth. I realize that many if not most people don’t particularly like insects—the word conjures up images of mosquitoes, spiders, flies, or cockroaches rather than butterflies, fireflies, bees or damselflies. In 2018 Bloomberg News ran an article: “Google’s Parent Has a Plan to Eliminate Mosquitoes Worldwide. Bite. Breed. Die.” which about summed up many people’s attitudes to insects: they’re horrible, they bite or sting, they may be poisonous or spread diseases, and we don’t need them.

The trouble is, we do need insects, even mosquitoes. Life is a chain, and many creatures higher up the chain rely on the mosquito (or some other insect) for food, or eat the creatures that eat the mosquito, to be eaten themselves in turn by other creatures. We break the chain of life at our peril, because we are part of it.

In writing this paper it occurred to me: 5G has been going in around the world for some time now, but I have read hardly anything about it affecting insects, or soil, or bird migration, or animals. Hasn’t anyone else noticed? Is Greece the first country to have put 5G all over rural areas? Or are people simply not connecting the dots and continuing to blame pesticides and climate change for everything that goes wrong in nature? Because I don’t believe for a second that what’s happening here isn’t happening in other places. Something caused the bumblebee to become extinct in nine U.S. states. And birdwatcher friends are telling me that they too are seriously concerned about migration.

A big part of the problem is that no one is looking. Every day we take our dogs for a walk and see other people out walking or running, but are they looking around them? Virtually every person we see is carrying a smartphone, and more often than not they are looking at it as they go along. They might notice an elephant if it got in their way, but a bee? Or a lack of bees? They are too involved with “staying connected” to stay connected with the world in front of their eyes. If you don’t look you won’t see. If you live your life in what NY Times columnist Roger Cohen dubbed “device-distracted apathy” the world around you might as well not exist.

I’m tired of hearing, “Wireless communications are here to stay; we can’t do without them; we can’t go back to the Stone Age.” What we cannot do without—really can’t do without— is nature. A planet with dead seas and dead land will not support us; we will die of oxygen deprivation or starve to death. Who will you call then?

Now that 5G has arrived, time is running out fast. I don’t think it’s too late to change things, but I don’t think we have much time left to do it. So I ask you—if this paper has meant anything at all to you, think seriously about giving up your wireless devices. There are other ways to communicate. Contact NGOs and ask them to add RF radiation to their list of major threats to the planet, to stop promoting smartphone apps which identify bugs or birds, and to stop tracking animals, birds and insects using wireless devices. Contact government representatives and ask them to support alternatives to wireless technology.

If you don’t care, who will? 

5G Cell Towers Cause Massive Insect Decline on the Greek island of Samos

Diana Kordas
Ed.M, M.A.
Samos, Greece

February 22, 2022


In 2017, a major German study found that flying insects had decreased over 75% in protected areas over the previous 27 years while ruling out climate change and pesticides. In 2021, the bumblebee was declared extinct in nine U.S. states. Insects, including pollinators, are diminishing rapidly worldwide, yet governments, NGOs, the mainstream media and even many scientists are refusing to consider the effects of Radiofrequency (RF) radiation despite an enormous body of independent scientific studies showing harm.

During recent decades, environmental pollution from RF radiation has increased substantially. Currently the fifth generation, 5G, is being rolled out worldwide. Appeals for a moratorium on 5G till proper studies are done to assess potential risks have all failed.

Besides risks to people, such as cancer, neurological disease and sterility, hazards to the environment, especially birds and insects, are a major concern. On our 31⁄2 acre piece of land on the island of Samos, we have seen a dramatic decrease of insects between 2012 and 2021. Some species of insects may be extinct and several species appear to be suffering from DNA damage.

The area where we live had little wireless radiation until 2016, when 4G/LTE networks were installed on Samos and many new cell towers were built, from which time insects and birds began to decline noticeably. A tipping-point was reached in the summer of 2021, after the installation of a new 5G cell tower directly opposite the land. This cell tower is part of a new 5G network on Samos.

Since July 2021, when the 5G network on Samos went live, insects on our land have declined between 80-90% depending on species. All orders of insects are affected. The cause of these insect declines can only be RF radiation from the cell towers. No pesticides are used in this area and nothing else can account for the sudden, severe drop in the number of insects in this place since July 2021. Small mammals, especially rodents, are also declining rapidly.

The consequences of these declines will be far-reaching: this will affect wild plant diversity, agriculture and beekeeping. Worse, they may lead to crop failures and mass bee colony collapse respectively. Insect-eating birds will decline dramatically and may go extinct.

Frequency (i.e., wavelength) appears to be a more important factor than signal strength (power) in insect declines. Greece is using the 0.7 GHz, 3,5 GHz and 22.5 GHz bandwidths; the last of which is often classed as millimeter waves. Wherever 5G signals are present, insects have declined, whether these areas are near to or far from cell towers. Samos is rapidly losing most of its insects including its pollinators.

5G frequencies appear to be the main cause of the most recent insect declines, which are happening all over the island.

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Energy intensive 5G and wireless systems

From Environmental Health Trust

Flyer: “Climate Change, 5G & the Internet of Things


The more we use wireless electronic devices, the more energy we will consume. 5G will exponentially increase energy usage.  The  Small Cell Forum predicts the installed base of small cells to reach 70.2 million in 2025 and the total installed base of 5G or multimode small cells in 2025 to be 13.1 million.

“A 5G base station is generally expected to consume roughly three times as much power as a 4G base station. And more 5G base stations are needed to cover the same area,” -IEEE Spectrum5G’s Waveform Is a Battery Vampire

A 2022 review by the University of Sussex Business School entitled “The energy use implications of 5G: Reviewing whole network operational energy, embodied energy, and indirect effects” published in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews finds that the notion that 5G is green technology is not currently backed up by a strong, publicly available, fully transparent evidence base. The researchers did a literature review to examine whole network level assessments of the operational energy use implications of 5G, the embodied energy use associated with 5G, and indirect energy use effects associated with 5G-driven changes in user behaviour and patterns of consumption and production in other sectors of the economy. The authors warn that ,”the widespread adoption of unlimited data subscriptions for 5G users and the facilitation of advanced and data-intensive mobile services such as VR and more sophisticated mobile gaming could “encourage energy-intensive user practices, contribute to ever-growing levels of data traffic, and counteract the energy-saving potential of 5G efficiency improvements.”

“The introduction of massive-MIMO antennas alone will require an additional 1,000 watts of power per sector,” Kompany said. Alongside this, he said, additional power is also required for other new equipment such as the radio units, baseband and servers.”- Don Bishop in  Existing Power Reqirements at Most Mobile Network Operators’s Sites will be Unable to Meet the Requirements of 5G Networks 

“A lurking threat behind the promise of 5G delivering up to 1,000 times as much data as today’s networks is that 5G could also consume up to 1,000 times as much energy,” Dexter Johnson in the IEEE Spectrum. Why?  Because there will be an increase in the number of small cellsmassive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas, cloud computing and an explosion of internet connected devices.

Industry reports repeatedly document that energy efficiency gains have not been met.  Energy use will increase as the IOT explodes over the next decade. The phenomenal growth in internet traffic has  important implications for energy demands.

“As 5G usurps LTE, energy consumption is expected to increase 61x between 2020 to 2030 due to the energy demands of powerful network elements like massive MIMO and edge servers, the proliferation of 5G cell sites, and the flexibility of the 5G networks in both consumer and enterprise use cases” and “power consumption of the 5G network is expected to soar due to active network elements like energy-hungry baseband units, remote radio heads, small cells, and core networks,” according to the 2020 study, Environmentally Sustainable 5G Deployment which quantifies the energy footprint for 5G deployment and identifies best practices to encourage energy sustainability. 

“Alarming new research suggests that failure to source renewable energy could make data centres one of the biggest polluters in just seven years. As analysts estimate as many as 50 billion devices to be connected by 2020, with some statistics pointing to more than 100 billion a further five years down the line, new alarming research suggests that data centres will be one of the biggest energy consumers on the planet, beating many countries’ energy consumption levels.”

– João Marques Lima in Data Centres Of The World Will Consume 1/5 Of Earth’s Power By 2025

“The whole aim of the new 5G network is to allow for more devices to be used by the consumer at faster rates than ever before, because of this goal there will certainly be an increase in energy usage globally.” “While the idea of more space for devices to be used is great for consumers, this will lead to a spike in energy usage for two reasons – the technology itself is energy demanding and will increase demand for more electronic devices. The ability for more devices to be used on the same network creates more incentive for consumers to buy electronics and use them more often. This will have a harmful impact on the environment through increased energy use” –“What Will 5G Mean for the Environment?”  by CLAIRE CURRAN

On this page, EHT lists reports on the ever increasing use of energy for the ever increasing wireless rollout.

For the rest of the article:

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U.S. — Timeline of Development of Safety Limits for Wireless Radiation

From Environmental Health Trust
September 7, 2021

After WWII: US begins robust interagency research: 1957 Conference Report,  1967 Air Force Report1971 Naval Report1978 Report Office of Science & Technology1978 Conference, 1979 Dept of Commerce Report,  1980 Dept of Energy Report,  1994 Air Force Report.  

1977: Senate Hearings Link to Transcript 

1979: United States Congressional Hearing (Transcript 1, 2, 3

1980’s to 1996: EPA measured levels in US and was tasked to develop wireless radiation safety limits. 1984 EPA Report on Biological Effects1986 Report on Environmental Exposure Levels

1995: EPA meets with FCC & presents EPA’s plan to develop RF safety limits . Video explainer. 

1996: EPA defunded from researching EMFs. EPA closed project measuring EMF levels in US Cities. 

1996: FCC adopts RF wireless radiation rules and safety limits from industry connected groups (ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992 and NCRP’s 1986 Report). EHT’s Analysis of the creation of US limits. 

1999: FDA requests the National Toxicology Program to study cell phone radiation because of the lack of safety data on health effects from long term chronic exposure. 

2008National Research Council Report “The Identification of Research Needs Relating to Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communications Devices”   

2008: Congressional Hearing: Health Effects of Cell Phone Use

2009: US Senate Hearings on Health Effects of Cell Phone Wireless Radiation

2012Government Accountability Office Report recommends cell phone test procedures be reassessed to ensure they reflect real world use and are based on latest science. 

2013: FCC opens official inquiry 13-84 asking if RF limits should be updated

2013 to 2019: Thousands of pages of scientific evidence submitted to FCC in Docket 13-84.

2018: National Toxicology Program releases Final Reports on large scale animal studies of chronic exposure to cell phone radiation and concludes “clear evidence” of cancer. FDA rejects the findings.  EHT and expert scientists write FDA with science based letters calling on the FDA to retract their biased review. 

2019: FCC decision 19-126  not to update 1996 RF limits

2020: EHT filed case against the FCC arguing the 2019 decision was not based on adequate review of the FCC 13-84 record. 

2021: The U.S Court of Appeals for DC Circuit rules on EHT et al., v. FCC in our favor. 

Notable US Agency letters 

1996: EPA Letter that US Limits are only protective for thermal impacts

1999: Scientists from US federal agencies of the radiofrequency interagency workgroup (RFIWG) write IEEE  Work Group Chair on critical issues about RF exposure limits 

2002: EPA Letter stating FCC’s 1996 RF limits do not protect against all effects

2003: Scientists from US federal agencies (RFIAWG) again write IEEE on additional issues about IEEE’s RF exposure limits. Both 1999 and 2003 letters remain unanswered. 

2014: U.S. Department of the Interior Letter to the National Telecommunications and Information Administration stating FCC Guidelines are outdated. 

Press Conference on Landmark FCC lawsuit:


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Rockets destroy ozone and cause climate change – aerospace programs’ deadly impacts to the Earth including 5G

January 21, 2022Image from NASA
Ozone Hole Watch

By Nina Beety
January 24, 2022

Since its beginnings, the space industry has used PR, Hollywood, and a parade of stars to carve itself into the public psyche, including targeting children. Aerospace costs have been largely ignored or hidden, but these costs are serious and accelerating.

The ozone layer in the sky continues to deteriorate despite international action such as the ban on CFCs. The Antarctic ozone hole is becoming permanent year-round, and the soothing green and blue on NASA’s maps actually signifies low ozone levels.1 The aerospace industry is a major factor in this problem. Dallas etal. (2020): [O]zone depletion is one of the largest environmental concerns surrounding rocket launches from Earth.”2 Why?

1 – Rockets’ radical emissions cause immediate, almost total ozone destruction for hundreds of square miles and which lasts days.3

2 – Rockets’ exhaust and pollutants introduced into the stratosphere persist there and react with and destroy ozone over the long term.4

3 – The sun creates the ozone layer by changing oxygen into ozone in the stratosphere. But rockets put pollutants such as exhaust, water vapor, black carbon, and fuel components such as alumina into the stratosphere, blocking the sun’s rays. This reduces the sun’s creation of ozone, reducing ozone layer repair and replenishment. The long-lived rocket byproducts persist in the stratosphere for 3-5 years,5 and accumulate with every rocket launch, decreasing ozone regeneration with each launch.6

4 – The shockwave of de-orbitting debris, satellites, and rockets creates nitric oxide which destroys ozone.7

There is no environmental oversight. Researchers including Martin Ross, Darin Toohey, and James Vedda have repeatedly warned the industry,8 but the industry and governments are escalating space funding and programs instead.

Prior to 2021, 2000 satellites were in orbit around the Earth. Then in 2021, 2800 satellites were launched — more than doubling the total in just one year.9 However, the FCC has approved 17,270 low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. 65,912 more LEO applications are pending. Governments and private companies plan an additional 30,947+. Rwanda has applied to the ITU for a staggering 327,320 satellites (Firstenberg, 2022). These numbers don’t include systems fewer than five satellites, geostationary, or medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites, or rockets into space.

These programs will acceleratingly destroy the ozone layer which is essential to protect the Earth and life.10 NASA discovered in 2007 that UV-C and UV-B were already reaching the Earth and failed to act.11 UV radiation is having lethal effects on species now.

LEO satellites are very short-lived, lasting 5-7 years; the U.S. military plans 3-year duration satellites. These LEOs need frequent replacement via rocket launch.

Aleksandr Dunayev of the Russian Space Agency said in 1991: “About 300 launches of the [space] shuttle each year would be a catastrophe, and the ozone layer would be completely destroyed.”12

Science author Arthur Firstenberg says: “In 2021, there were 146 orbital rocket launches to put 1,800 satellites into space. At that rate, to maintain and continually replace 100,000 low-earth-orbit satellites, which have a lifespan of five years, would require more than 1,600 rocket launches per year, or more than four every day, forever into the future.”13 That’s over five times the amount to totally destroy the ozone layer.

The long-lived rocket pollution in the stratosphere also traps Earth’s natural and human-made heat under a rapidly thickening blanket, preventing the heat from venting into space. This will increasingly raise Earth’s temperature.14 This is a different issue than carbon or methane. However, the increased heat will release methane stored in permafrost and formerly ice-covered regions, and this methane will poison Earth.

These satellite systems are largely intended for 4G/5G global Wi-Fi, military warfighting, and the Internet of Things. They exponentially increase RF-EMF radiation levels in the atmosphere and on Earth. This radiation damages health and causes environmental damage. It damages neurology, DNA, cell membranes, the brain, cognition, learning, memory, immunity, reproduction and fertility, blood, and mitochondria, dysregulates hormones, the blood-brain barrier, and sleep cycles, and causes cancer, stroke, heart attacks, and oxidative stress.15

It disrupts wildlife’s ability to navigate and orient by Earth’s natural EMF fields. Bees, insects, and birds are particularly vulnerable.16 The U.S. Department of Interior warned in 2014 about the devastating impacts to birds from this radiation.17 In 2020, a 5G military/SpaceX “live fire” drill killed up to millions of birds in the Southwest.18 Western governments and the FCC ignore the substantial research showing devastating impacts.

What a disaster.

Another problem: dead spacecraft and debris are rapidly accumulating in the sky, creating collision hazards for other rockets, satellites, and the space stations.19 Every collision creates more debris, leading to more collisions. Unstoppable chain-reaction collisions – Kessler Syndrome — are inevitable. It is increasingly difficult to navigate through these debris fields.

High rates of satellite failure leave dead, unmaneuverable satellites in orbit. The new large constellations will dramatically worsen this problem.20

All of this debris, computers, electronic and chemical waste, radioactive elements, weapons, dead satellites, rocket parts, and dust come down. Aerospace officials and agencies, including the FCC,21 talk nonsense about “disposal” via “safe” de-orbitting and vaporization, as if the waste simply disappears.

The reality is that de-orbitting and vaporization create new problems — exploding burning debris, aerosolizing toxins, metals, paints, fuels, and other chemicals. They fall into the lower atmosphere to pollute the soil, ocean, waters, and air we breathe. “Vaporized” means it explodes into tiny particles and dust.

With these large constellations of short lifespan, increasing failures, and launch rocket debris, a barrage of debris and fall-out and increasing atmospheric dust are just beginning.

All of this debris burns at very hot temperatures as it re-enters the atmosphere, with big and little chunks landing everywhere.22 Exponential increases in fall-out increases the risk for fires, injuries, deaths, and property damage. A large chunk of space debris fell into a Michigan family’s yard and just missed hitting anyone.23 Hot debris fell in Chile last year causing fires.24 A Russian satellite that was supposed to stay in orbit for ten thousand years fell out of orbit this month and possibly landed in the Pacific Ocean.25

In 2020, the FCC proposed an “acceptable” casualty rate of 1 in 10,000 from falling satellites and rockets.26 The FCC also discussed liability and indemnity. However, any liability depends on debris being attributable to a company or government. Otherwise, injured parties would likely have limited or no recourse.

Direct land, air, and ocean pollution from dumping, rocket liftoffs, launch pad runoff and

accidents, is another terrible problem.27

No one is discussing this.

The US also wants to put nuclear power into space 28 — reactors in the sky — and awarded a major contract to a team that includes GE, the company which engineered the flawed Fukushima reactors.29 Rockets can explode at launch, malfunction after launch, or fail to reach orbit. This last happened with SNAP 9-A in 1964. As a result, 2.1 pounds of plutonium-238 “vaporized in the atmosphere and spread worldwide… Dr. John Goffman …concluded that the dispersed deadly plutonium-238 was a leading cause of the increase in cancers around the world today.”30 There have been other space nuclear accidents. Officials don’t seem to care.

The militarization of the atmosphere, space, and the moon risk World War III — another problem. 5G in space will control weapons systems on Earth and in the ocean, 31 including military sonar already responsible for killing hundreds of thousands of dolphins, whales, and other marine animals.32 Elon Musk/SpaceX in partnership with the US government has endangered Chinese astronauts by getting too close to their space station.33 Musk is the same man who advocates nuking Mars and saying the U.S. can coup whatever country it wants for rare earth minerals such as lithium.34 The military and its contractors are not guided by responsible, calm leaders. The worst is already happening.

Add to that accelerating plans to exploit, extract, militarize, and privatize the sovereign moon which stabilizes Earth’s rotation and climates, creates the tides, and is essential to all life, as I detailed in my previous article.35 Who’s protecting the moon and the Earth?

Military conquest, profiteering through extraction, mining, tourism, and exploitation are the main goals driving the expenditure of public monies and private investment, not pretty space pictures or neutral, scientific “exploration”. The plutonium ecocide of Saturn by the space industry via the Cassini probe should have been a wakeup call to pull the plug on NASA and the aerospace industry before more planets are destroyed including the Earth.

Subsidizing this industry has caused a brain drain into its high-paying jobs, neglecting and hampering work on Earth’s urgent problems. And the aerospace industry has siphoned off billions in public funds that could fund solutions, while causing expensive environmental problems to be dealt with “later”. The $10 billion dollar Webb telescope is one recent example. Decisionmakers are dashing headlong toward the mirage of a new Gold Rush.

It’s time to strip back the curtain and reveal the protected astronauts, aerospace moguls, and rocket scientists. They are not heroes. They are destroying the Earth. The joy rides of William Shatner and Jeff Bezos were sickening.

Those who want to stop climate change and protect the ozone layer must halt the space programs including space tourism and military programs.

Those who would protect the environment must stop these programs and do it now.

This is common sense. This is about Earth protection. This is about growing up.

Stop the rockets. Defund the space programs. Protect the Earth now.


1 — to view historical data for Southern Hemisphere — to view historical data for Northern Hemisphere
NASA ozone watch

2 (abstract)

The environmental impact of emissions from space launches: A comprehensive review, J.A. Dallas, S. Raval, J.P. Alvarez, Gaitan, S. Saydam, A.G. Dempster, Journal of Cleaner Production, May 10, 2020.

Martin Ross , Darin Toohey , Manfred Peinemann & Patrick Ross (2009) Limits on the Space Launch Market Related to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Astropolitics, 7:1, 50-82, DOI: 10.1080/14777620902768867

The emissions[Four Main Propellant Types] presented in Table 1 cause prompt and deep ozone loss (approaching 100%) in the immediate plume wake, caused by the radical emissions, over areas of hundreds of square miles lasting several days after launch. These stratospheric ‘‘ozone mini-holes’’ have been well observed in situ by high altitude aircraft plume sampling campaigns.

4 ibid.

Beyond the prompt plume wake ozone destruction, second order processing of rocket combustion products occurs during the weeks and months after launch. The plumes are transported and mixed into the global stratosphere and lose their identity as distinct air masses. This intermediate mesoscale phase would be characterized by complex plume-atmosphere interactions among radicals, reservoirs, and sinks. Significant influences from alumina or soot particles are expected, possibly involving the creation of new H2O related particles. The details of this processing will be highly variable according to altitude and even time of day of launch and certainly has a large influence on the steady-state global ozone loss. A few chance observations of aged plumes confirm the importance of the mesoscale processing. No studies have been done on this aspect of rocket emissions. [emphasis added]
Leonard David (2017) Spaceflight Pollution: How Do Rocket Launches and Space Junk Affect Earth’s Atmosphere?
As NASA and others launch more rockets, effects on Earth remain a mystery, Oct. 8, 2019

Martin Ross and James Vedda, Time to clear the air about launch pollution, July 3, 2018
Loren Grush, Why it’s time to study how rocket emissions change the atmosphere, May 31, 2018

Martin Ross and Patti Sheaffer (2014) Radiative forcing caused by rocket engine emissions, Earth’s Future. January 23, 2014.

Leonard David (2009) Space Littering Can Impact Earth’s Atmosphere

Martin Ross , Darin Toohey , Manfred Peinemann & Patrick Ross (2009) Limits on the Space Launch Market Related to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Astropolitics, 7:1, 50-82,DOI:10.1080/14777620902768867
Martin Ross and James A. Vedda, The Policy and Science of Rocket Emissions, April 2018

441,449 Low Earth Orbit Satellites Operating, Approved and Proposed, Arthur Firstenberg. January 2022

Anwar, F., Chaudhry, F.N., Nazeer, S., Zaman, N. and Azam, S. (2016) Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion and Its Effects on Human: Review. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 6, 129-134.

Claudia von Werlhof, The Moment of Truth Has Come! What Now? Threat to Life on Planet Earth; Ozone Dying and the Deadly Ultraviolet Cosmic Radiation, April 25, 2018

12 New York Times, May 14, 1991, cited in
Global Union Against Radiation Deployment from Space (GUARDS) letter to World Medical Association, February 16, 2016

Arthur Firstenberg, 441,449 Low Earth Orbit Satellites Operating, Approved and Proposed, January 2022

Leonard David (2017) Spaceflight Pollution: How Do Rocket Launches and Space Junk Affect Earth’s Atmosphere?

15 ibid. Physicians for Safe Technology Bioinitiative Report EMF Scientist Electromagnetic Health Dr. Magda Havas, includes archives of Dr. Zorach Glaser
Global Union Against Radiation Deployment from Space (GUARDS) letter to World Medical Association, February 16, 2016
James C. Lin, Clear Evidence of Cell-Phone RF Radiation Cancer Risk. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2018.2844058
Lin JC. The Significance of Primary Tumors in the NTP Study of Chronic Rat Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 20(11):18-21. Nov 2019. DOI:10.1109/MMM.2019.2935361.
Joel Moskowitz, National Toxicology Program analysis

Robert C. Kane, Cellular Telephone Russian Roulette: A Historical and Scientific Perspective, 2001

Birds, Bees and Mankind: Destroying Nature by Electrosmog, Ulrich Warnke
Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure of Western Honey Bees

Department of Interior, Comments on FirstNet to Department of Commerce, Feb. 7, 2014

SpaceX Starlink Impresses Air Force Weapons Buyer In Big Live-Fire Exercise
U.S. Air Force Acquisition Chief is impressed by SpaceX Starlink’s performance during Live-Fire exercise
‘Unprecedented’: Birds mysteriously dropping dead across southwestern U.S.

“It’s just terrible,” NMSU biologist Martha Desmond told CNN. “The number is in the six figures. Just by looking at the scope of what we’re seeing, we know this is a very large event, hundreds of thousands and maybe even millions of dead birds, and we’re looking at the higher end of that.”

Meghan R. Plantz, Orbital Debris: Out of Space, 40 Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 585 (2012).
441,449 Low Earth Orbit Satellites Operating, Approved and Proposed, Arthur Firstenberg. January 2022
Leonard David (2009) Space Littering Can Impact Earth’s Atmosphere
Jonathan O’Callaghan, The risky rush for mega constellations, October 31, 2019
Zolensky, M.E., D.S. McKay and L.A. Kaczor (1989) A ten-fold increase in the abundance of large solid particles in the stratosphere, as measured over the period 1976-1984. The Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, D1, 1047-1056.

Representative chemical, structural, and morphological analyses of the large (>1 μm diameter) solid particles from three impaction collection surfaces have been performed. These collections sampled the stratosphere at approximately 17–19 km in altitude during 1976, 1981, and 1984…This rise in solid particle number density for the stratosphere over the collection period is likely due to the influx of solid rocket exhaust and rocket and satellite debris into the atmosphere in increasingly larger amounts with time. Some of this material is shed from spacecraft during ascent through the atmosphere, but the majority is probably provided during the descent of material from Earth’s growing belt of debris in low Earth orbit.
Arjun Kharpal, Space companies are racing to beam web access to the entire planet. But ‘space junk’ is a big worry, February 16, 2020
Jonathan O’Callaghan, SpaceX’s Starlink could cause cascades of space junk, May 13, 2019
Nadia Dreid, Satellite Cos. Want FCC to Reconsider Space Junk Rules, September 28, 2020

“Once in orbit, the debris can move seven times faster than a bullet, according to NASA.”

Jonathan O’Callaghan, The Risky Rush for Mega-Constellations, 2019

“My concern with these big constellations is the [overall] failure rates,” says Glenn Peterson, a senior engineering specialist at the Aerospace Corporation near Los Angeles. “If a satellite fails, they can’t bring it down any more.” In its own filing with the FCC, Amazon was asked to project the potential collision risk of its Project Kuiper constellation if up to 15 percent of its satellites failed, a high but not unfathomable number. U.S.-company Iridium Communications, which launched a constellation of 95 satellites into orbit in the 1990s, found that 30 percent of those satellites failed. If 15 percent of Amazon’s satellites failed in orbit, the company has estimated a 17 percent chance that one of them would collide with a piece of space debris—potentially breaking apart to create more space debris and raise overall collision risks.

Mitigation of Orbital Debris in the New Space Age, Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 35 FCC Rcd 4156 (2020). 20-54

22 Meghan R. Plantz, Orbital Debris: Out of Space

Example: “…in 1997, parts of a U.S. launch vehicle, including a 450 pound stainless steel propellant tank, ruptured upon impact close to a farmer’s house in Georgetown, Texas. Other parts from the launch vehicle landed around Texas and Oklahoma, such as the titanium helium-pressurized sphere that landed 100 miles away in Seguin, Texas.

Samsung’s ‘Space Selfie’ satellite made a crash landing on a Michigan couple’s property, 2019

Falling Fireballs Crashed in Chile Last Week. They Weren’t Meteorites, Experts Say.


FCC Order and Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 20-54, IV. Section E Casualty Risk Assessment, p. 81-82. including on cumulative risk for constellations of satellites:

“One approach could be a safe harbor similar to some of the concepts described above, wherein a system satisfying a 1 in 10,000, or other risk metric system-wide would satisfy the safe harbor threshold, such that no further analysis of risk would be required We seek comment on this safe harbor approach and a reasonable risk metric for a safe harbor.”

The following section on indemnification is very revealing about companies’ desire to avoid responsibility for damage.

As NASA and others launch more rockets, effects on Earth remain a mystery, Oct. 8, 2019

Bruce Gagnon, Our opposition grows: Dangers of launching nukes into space, Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space. Feb. 15, 2021

USNC-Tech team wins contract to develop nuclear thermal propulsion system for NASA


31 See Global Network Against Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space


China Angry With Elon Musk Over Space Near-Misses

Rainer Shea, “We will coup whoever we want”: U.S. imperialism’s friendly mask slips off. Op-Ed News, July 27, 2020

Nina Beety, Who’s Protecting the Moon, Global Research. May 15, 2020

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